Friday, November 18, 2005


All ciphers involve either transposition or substitution, or a combination of these two mathematical operations—i.e., product ciphers. In transposition cipher systems, elements of the plaintext

Sunday, October 16, 2005


Also called  Madhhab Hanifah , English  Hanafites  in Islam, one of the four Sunni schools of religious law, incorporating the legal opinions of the ancient Iraqi schools of al-Kufah and Basra. Hanafi legal thought (madhhab) developed from the teachings of the theologian Imam Abu Hanifah (c. 700–767) by such disciples as Abu Yusuf (d. 798) and Muhammad ash-Shaybani (749/750–805) and became the official system of Islamic legal interpretation of the 'Abbasids, Seljuqs

Wednesday, July 27, 2005

Brahmaputra River, Plant and animal life

The most notable

Tuesday, July 26, 2005

Furniture, Mirrors

The use of mirror glass in furnishings arose during the 17th century. The discoloration of the melted glass because of silvering and, not least, the prohibitive cost and difficulty of manufacturing mirror glass of considerable size restricted the possibilities of large-scale application. The mirror gallery at Versailles was thus an outstanding technical achievement

Saturday, July 23, 2005

Potassium-argon Dating

Method of determining the time of origin of rocks by measuring the ratio of radioactive argon to radioactive potassium in the rock. This dating method is based upon the decay of radioactive potassium-40 to radioactive argon-40 in minerals and rocks; potassium-40 also decays to calcium-40. Thus, the ratio of argon-40 and potassium-40 and radiogenic calcium-40 to potassium-40 in a mineral

Wednesday, July 06, 2005

Arabia, History Of, The Zaydis and 'Alawis

In the mid-10th century a refugee from disturbances in Iraq, Ahmad

Thursday, June 30, 2005

Cavalcanti, Guido

Born into an influential Florentine family of the Guelf (papal) party, Cavalcanti studied under the philosopher and scholar