Thursday, September 30, 2004

Dafydd Ap Gwilym

Little is known of his life, except that he was a member of an aristocratic family from South Wales,

Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Biblical Literature, Literal interpretation

Literal interpretation is often, but not necessarily, associated with the belief in verbal or plenary inspiration, according to which not only the biblical message but also the individual words in which that message was delivered or written down were divinely chosen. In an extreme form this would imply that God dictated the message to the speakers or writers word

Monday, September 27, 2004

Animal, History of classification

Except perhaps for the possession of collagen, the criteria used above to distinguish animals from other forms of life are not absolute. The first catalogs of animal diversity were based on overall form and similarity. Aristotle and other early biologists regarded all organisms as part of a great chain, divisions of which were more or less arbitrary. The 18th-century

Sunday, September 26, 2004

Shamanism, Personal characteristics and selection

Scholars generally agree that the shaman acquires his profession through inheritance, learning, or an inner call, or �vocation,� but each of these terms requires some qualification. �Inheritance� means that the soul of a dead shaman or the so-called shaman illness is inherited. �Learning� here does not usually mean the study of exact knowledge and explicit dogma, for the

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Mauch, Karl

After an unsatisfying few years as a private tutor, Mauch gave up teaching and hired on with a shipping company. He arrived in South Africa in 1865, found

Thursday, September 23, 2004

Ashwell, Lena

Reared and educated in Canada, Ashwell studied music at Lausanne, Switz., and at the Royal Academy of Music, London. Her voice proved

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Ashurnasirpal Ii

King of Assyria 883 - 859 BC, whose major accomplishment was the consolidation of the conquests of his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, leading to the establishment of the New Assyrian Empire. Although, by his own testimony, he was a brilliant general and administrator, he is perhaps best known for the brutal frankness with which he described the atrocities committed on

Tuesday, September 21, 2004

Peter Des Roches

As bishop of Winchester from 1205 to 1238, he organized and added to the financial resources of his see. He held ecclesiastical appointments in Touraine

Monday, September 20, 2004


City, western Rio de Janeiro estado (�state�), eastern Brazil, on the Para�ba do Sul River, opposite Agulhas Negras, at 1,296 feet (395 m) above sea level. Dairying, meat and coffee processing, and talc pulverizing are the principal economic activities. A marble quarry is located nearby, as is a military school. Resende, on the Presidente Dutra Highway between the cities of Rio de Janeiro

Sunday, September 19, 2004


City, Ibaraki ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It lies along the Naka River, northeast of Mito, the prefectural capital. The city developed rapidly as an industrial site for the Hitachi Company, Ltd., after 1940, mainly producing electric locomotives and other electric machinery. Pop. (1992 est.) 112,650.

Saturday, September 18, 2004


In geology, metamorphic zone developed in the contact area around igneous rock intrusions when carbonate sedimentary rocks are invaded by large amounts of silicon, aluminum, iron, and magnesium. The minerals commonly present in a skarn include iron oxides, calc-silicates (wollastonite, diopside, forsterite), andradite and grossularite garnet, epidote, and calcite.

Friday, September 17, 2004


Pyridine is used as a solvent and is added to ethyl alcohol to make it unfit for drinking. It

Thursday, September 16, 2004

Furniture, Near East and classical antiquity

A. Lucas, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 3rd ed. (1948), indispensable; Howard Carter and A.C. Mace, The Tomb of Thut-Ankh-Amen, 3 vol. (1923 - 27); Gisela H. Richter, The Furniture of the Greeks, Etruscans and Romans (1966), the standard reference work in this area.

Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Surduc Pass

Also called �Jiu Defile�, or �Jiu Pass�Romanian �Pasul Surduc� pass, southwestern Romania. The Jiu River flows through the pass between the V�lcan (west) and the Par�ng (east) mountains, in the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians). The pass connects the Petrosani Depression (upper Jiu Valley) with the Plain of Oltenia. A road and the Bumbesti - Livezeni railway line, opened in 1947, follow the pass by means of 30 tunnels and several

Tuesday, September 14, 2004


Do (province), northwestern South Korea. It is bounded by the truce line with North Korea (north), by the do of Kangwon (east) and Kyongsang-puk and Ch'ungch'ong-nam (south), and by the Yellow Sea (west). The nation's capital, Seoul, is in the middle of the province but was separated from it administratively in 1946 as a special city. Formerly Kyonggi do was the granary of Seoul; the Kyonggi plain,

Monday, September 13, 2004

Utzon, J�

Utzon studied at the Copenhagen School of Architecture (1937 - 42) and then spent three years in Stockholm, where he came under the influence of the Swedish architect Erik Gunnar Asplund. He also studied in the United States, and, for a six-month

Saturday, September 11, 2004


Town (�parish�), Derbyshire Dales district, administrative and historic county of Derbyshire, England. Ashbourne is a centre for the surrounding agricultural districts and for tourists visiting nearby Dovedale and the Manyfold Valley. Its buildings include the Church of St. Oswald, dating from 1241 and possessing an octagonal spire (212 feet [65 metres]). The oldest of the famous

Friday, September 10, 2004

Fisk, James

Fisk worked successively as a circus hand, waiter, peddler, dry-goods salesman, stockbroker, and corporate official. In 1866 he formed Fisk and Belden, a brokerage firm, with the support of Daniel

Thursday, September 09, 2004

Greek Orthodox Patriarchate Of Antioch And All The East

The authority of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East was limited after the Council of Chalcedon (451) to the community known as Romans,

Wednesday, September 08, 2004


City and port, St. Lawrence county, northern New York, U.S. It lies on the St. Lawrence River, at the mouth of the Oswegatchie River and is linked to Ontario, Canada, by the Ogdensburg-Prescott International Bridge (1960). The site was settled in 1749 when Abb� Fran�ois Picquet established Fort-La Pr�sentation as an Indian mission. The French abandoned the fort in 1760 in the face of a British

Tuesday, September 07, 2004

Pitt, William, The Younger

British prime minister (1783 - 1801, 1804 - 06) during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. He had considerable influence in strengthening the office of the prime minister.

Monday, September 06, 2004

Thompson River

Major tributary of the Fraser River, in southern British Columbia, Canada. The North Thompson (210 miles [340 km]) rises in the Cariboo Mountains east of Wells Gray Provincial Park and follows an easterly then southwesterly course to Kamloops; the South Thompson (206 miles) emerges from Shuswap Lake and flows northwesterly to Kamloops (see photograph), where the two streams unite

Sunday, September 05, 2004


Ancient West Semitic benevolent deity. His name may possibly be translated as �Spirit of Healing.� He was often represented as a youthful, beardless male, standing on a lion above mountains, wearing a long, trailing garment and a pointed headdress, and holding a small lion in one hand and, perhaps, a whip in the other. In representations from Palmyra, Shadrafa is shown with

Saturday, September 04, 2004

Anthropology And Archaeology, Cultural Anthropology.

Cultural anthropology, the only social science traditionally dedicated to describing and understanding the diversities and commonalities of human culture and society, remained a discipline in creative ferment during 1999. Ethnographers, those who describe culture, continued searching for more effective data-collection methods as they struggled to determine

Friday, September 03, 2004


Epictetus is most frequently mentioned in connection with a series of medallions on plates in the British Museum in London and the Cabinet des M�dailles in Paris. The medallion paintings

Thursday, September 02, 2004


Irish �Tuaim� chief market town of the northern part of eastern County Galway, Ireland. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop, the see having been founded by St. Jarlath (c. 550), and the seat of a Protestant bishop. The Protestant cathedral incorporates part of an ancient church built about 1130 with the help of Turloch O'Connor, king of Connaught. The chancel is all that remains of the original

Wednesday, September 01, 2004


Akihito was the fifth child and eldest son of Emperor Hirohito and Empress Nagako. During his early years he was reared in the traditional imperial manner, beginning his education